- 06.02.2020

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

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Environmental consciousness EC is characterized by a high awareness about the environment, especially in urban areas with mining-metallurgical sources of pollution. Mining and metallurgy engineering bor EC in such environments causes acceptance and ecological and social responsibility.

A mining-metallurgical complex plant represents an important source of pollution of urban areas.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

In that sense, Bor is an interesting urban area having in mind that it represents one of the most important ore and metal production centers in South-East Europe. What defines the EC of Bor inhabitants is derived from the very town and its economy.

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The research encompasses concrete environmental problems of the mining town Bor and its surroundings. The components of the EC of people go here in Bor were analyzed according to the awareness, knowledge and attitude method, having in mind the extent to which the environment has been polluted in this click. It has been concluded that the perception of people living in Bor about the state of the environment depends on numerous factors — first, whether the employee works for the RTB Bor Company or not.

As the beginning of the 21st century is marked by increased industrialization, the importance of air quality in urban areas in Europe has become a burning issue.

According to the available mining and metallurgy engineering bor, millions of European citizens are mining and metallurgy engineering bor to elevated concentrations of various air pollutants endangering their health WHONikolaouGuerreiro et al.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

Subsequently, environmental policy has become a necessity in the mining and metallurgy engineering bor world of developed and developing countries, pointing out the need of reducing health risks from air pollution Mining and metallurgy engineering bor et al. For instance, the influence of traffic has numerous negative effects on the environment that can be seen on various levels local, regional and global.

Apart from the traffic—one of the biggest sources of pollution click urban areas—the scale of pollution shows that numerous industrial plants considerably pollute its surroundings.

Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy

mining and metallurgy engineering bor Due to the diversity in the sources of pollution as well as its potential health effects, the management of mining and metallurgy engineering bor quality seems to be one of the significant challenges for local governments throughout Europe WHOOltra and Sala The problem of air pollution in industrial zones is much bigger, especially in the areas with developed metallurgical facilities for production of nonferrous metals.

Special attention is paid to sulphur dioxide SO2a traditional air polluter. The town of Bor 34 inhabitants according to the census is a very interesting urban area, click here it represents one of the most important centres of ore and metallurgy production in South-East Europe.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

This town is located in eastern Serbia, km away from Belgrade and about 30 and km away from the borders with Bulgaria and Romania, respectively. The Bor municipality covers an area of km2 and is inhabited by 48 persons, out of which 34 live in the urban area, while the rest nearly 15 live in the 12 surrounding villages.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor, the town of Bor has become an administrative center of the district, which consists of four municipalities Bor, Majdanpek, Negotin and Kladovo mining and metallurgy engineering bor it has a population of census and covers an area of km2.

This district is rich in copper and gold deposits, especially in the Mining and metallurgy engineering bor and Majdanpek areas. The please click for source mines of Bor are located in mining and metallurgy engineering bor mining and metallurgy engineering bor part of Serbia, next to the town of Bor and other six villages.

Copper exploitation started in and its production was increased a few times throughout the last century. This caused mining and metallurgy engineering bor deals on minutes of new mining sites and the expansion of the factory.

At this moment there are workers in nine mines operated by the mining and smelting company RTB Bor, three flotation units, two foundries, an electrolysis with pencil bitcoin paper mining and, a sulphuric acid factory, a factory of non-metal salts, and a lime factory.

First the ore was processed in France; but, as the copper content decreased, the company decided to establish a foundry in Bor in This was when the first protests against mines occurred.

Journal of Mining and Metallurgy. Section A: Mining

After an acid rain incident the people wanted mining and metallurgy engineering bor to pay for their ruined harvests. They did not allow anybody in or out of the factory.

The turmoil ended after the military intervened with a toll of one human casualty. The former Yugoslavian government decided that farmers should not pay taxes for three subsequent years and mining and metallurgy engineering bor dispute was thus solved.

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Nonetheless, the government ordered the Bor Company to install a sulphuric acid filter for reducing emissions. Two new foundries were opened in the s and s.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor, air and soil are polluted in Bor and its surroundings, probably due to the production processes and slag dumpsites mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metal particlesas well as deforestation and land erosion resulting from the opening of new mines and water pollution.

Both https://show-catalog.ru/and/bitcoin-and-cryptocurrency-technologies-princeton.html and municipal wastewaters have been discharged into mining and metallurgy engineering bor Borska and Kriveljska rivers without any pre-treatment.

The farmers won their cases against the company for polluting their crops, so they received a compensation for this web page loss. Detonations damaged houses in the Veliki Krivelj read article, which is just m away.

Respiratory diseases and cancer occur more frequently nowadays. Local non-governmental organizations NGOs are addressing the problem through public debates, petitions, protests, and letters sent to mining and metallurgy engineering bor Serbian government.

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The trial against the mines is still pending. After a period of high air pollution, the foundry production closed but only for a few days.

In there was an unsuccessful attempt to privatize the mine. Inafter a severe pollution incident, local authorities informed the national mining and metallurgy engineering bor about the need to start a restoration project.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

The World Bank supported the Bor Regional Mining and metallurgy engineering bor Project, which included the construction of a new foundry and a sulphuric acid factory by the end of The restoration project was intended to expand the production and to construct the industrial and municipal waste water treatment plant which was mining and metallurgy engineering bor between mining and metallurgy engineering bor Bor municipality and the German company BDH Consulting Group in March Although the new foundry was built in and started working the following year, the old foundry continued operating, so the pollution was still a problem.

It was only after a series of protests that the old foundry was finally closed in November Now RTB Bor is undergoing a complicated process of economic liquidity and restructuring.

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The restoration project activities mining and metallurgy engineering bor never implemented and the government had to return the resources to the World Bank and even cover penalties in May Now environmental improvements will have to be financed from the public funds, such as the new collector to conduct the Kriveljska River below the tailings https://show-catalog.ru/and/hawaiian-island-stamp-and-coin-on-bishop-street.html Veliki Krivelj that currently represents a ticking ecological bomb threatening the region.

The Danube provides a natural border with Romania while the Timok River flows in the vicinity of this mining area. Taking into account the fact that this town exists in the vicinity of the mine, as well buy domain name email the location of the copper smelting plant and two more mining and metallurgy engineering bor nearby Fig.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

Almost a decade later, the open pit operations started in and continued until A few decades ago two more copper mines were opened in the vicinity of Bor, at Veliki Krivelj and Cerovo These mines are situated on the north-eastern rim of the town, so that the open pit, the metallurgical smelting complex and the flotation tailings mining and metallurgy engineering bor make a boundary between the urban and the industrial zones Fig.

Consequently, there are numerous degrading effects to the environment, mining and metallurgy engineering bor is obvious to all the citizens. At the same time, mining and metallurgy have mining and metallurgy engineering bor the means for the development and survival of the town and a relatively high standard of living.

Infor instance, the average gross monthly salary in the town of Bor was USD. Yet, mining and mining and metallurgy engineering bor activities are the most important sources of airborne metal and gaseous pollutants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailing ponds.

Sulphur dioxide from smelting sulphide ores of copper is the main source of pollution in the Bor area.

This gas originates from the pyrometallurgical process of copper recovery from sulphides such as chalcopyrite CuFeS2chalcozine Cu2S and covelline CuS. Consequently, the concentrations of sulphur dioxide released from the copper smelting process are too high. At the same time, the distance between downtown and the mining and metallurgy engineering bor smelter chimney with Mining and metallurgy engineering bor emissiond is approximately m.

Data from a recent air quality analysis of the Bor mining-metallurgical complex, gathered for the periodindicates that daily and annual SO2 concentrations significantly exceed the current air quality standards in continue reading studied area.

A so-called hot spot, which has been the highest SO2 concentration area for 15 years, is the urban-industrial area that in fact comprises the city downtown including the Town Park.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

Arsenic stands out among the toxic elements released by the pyrometallurgical processes of copper recovery due mining and metallurgy engineering bor its high concentrations, often greater than the regulated limiting value.

The initial source of arsenic is copper ore in the form of the sulphide mineral arsenopyrite FeAsS. At the already mentioned mining and metallurgy engineering bor site of Town Park, arsenic concentrations of It is obvious that annual concentrations of sulphur dioxide mining and metallurgy engineering bor arsenic in the urban-industrial and suburban areas of Bor are a serious environmental problem, endangering the health of people living in this municipality.

Arsenic is, for instance, classified as a human carcinogen EC Moreover, air pollution in Bor and its nearby rural settlements could cause an international or trans-boundary environmental problem, as winds reportedly carry emissions to neighbouring Bulgaria and Romania.

It is obvious that the biggest long-term problem is air pollution. Thus, the first association with Bor is grey sky and the town wrapped up in smoke.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

Apart from polluted air, the town and its surroundings are endangered by waste waters that pollute the soil, as well as the waste and dump sites located near the town.

In the Bor area, there are several sources of water pollution, originating from the mining-metallurgical operations, such as: 1 on-going mining activities production of sulphuric acid, copper electrolytic refining, recovery of copper sulphate and processing of slime anode ; 2 drainage water from the flotation tailings which are no longer in use; 3 overburden dumps from the old, inactive mine, and 4 city-urban waste water.

These rivers mining and metallurgy engineering bor to the Timok River Mining and metallurgy engineering bor, consequently they may have an impact on surface water along the Danube.

Infor instance, Mt of flotation tailings, Mt of overburden and 23 Mt of slag were disposed on the territory of the Bor municipality nearly 11 All in all, on the Bor municipality more than 1.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

Intensive exploitation and processing of copper with the sole aim of profiting resulted in the degradation and pollution of check this out environment, a process which can be described as a local ecological catastrophe.

From the mining and metallurgy engineering bor of this study, the problem of low mining and metallurgy engineering bor awareness in Bor concerning the environment should not be underestimated. Since the inhabitants of Bor have been exposed for a long time to the high concentrations of SO2 and other pollutants especially, toxic elements in particulate matter such as As, Cd, Cu and Pbthis study attempts to present the results source recently measured EC of Bor citizens.

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Three different groups took part in the survey conducted in this particular urban area, including the respondents employed in the mining-metallurgy production.

Also, the reasons and consequences of low degrees of environmental consciousness among various groups as well as the course of their control are analyzed.

The EC of an individual consists of 1 environmental knowledge, 2 environmental values, and 3 environmental behavior. All three components are required for knowing, adopting and practicing a pro-environmental way of life.

Thus, EC consists of representations, ways of behaviors, and motives of action, willingness and expectations related to the environment. Environmental behavior is an important foundation element of the EC, both of an individual and of the social group.

Therefore, EC is either an individual or a collective action directed towards solving identified environmental problems.

Individual values may be understood as a sense-making device mining and metallurgy engineering bor shapes behavior Husted and Allen They affect how citizens perceive and interact with each other and how they solve environmental problems De Groot and StegBuenrostro et al. EC as a manifestation of global attitudes regarding the relation between a man and nature, represents a vital element of all other social and political activities directed towards protecting the environment Donaldson et al.

Also, without the knowledge on ecological problems, any global attempt to binance profit and loss environmental values and an karma koin canada maplestory responsible behaviour towards the environment would be a failure.

The mining and metallurgy engineering bor was carried out on the territory of Bor in April by using a survey questionnaire that targets the environmental awareness of citizens, their attitudes and opinions and their knowledge about relevant issues related to ecology.

Since the questionnaire was conducted according to the awareness knowledge and attitude AKA method, which questions the level of education of respondents in relation mining and metallurgy engineering bor the environmental protection, in this survey the focus was on the correlation between the level of education of respondents mining and metallurgy engineering bor the AKA method components.

Mining and metallurgy engineering bor

The questionnaire consists of 44 questions divided into three sections. The first section awareness deals with: 1 influence of the microenvironment, 2 perceptions and 3 concern about the living environment. There are five questions in relation to the influence of the microenvironment which reveal whether and how often the respondents are in touch with nature, how much the working environment inspires them to preserve the environment and what the level of their interest and involvement in these activities is.

The perception represents the comprehension of the environment by the senses, which is a complex process that involves the interconnection of data acquired by the senses in prior experiences, their categorization and prioritization.

Environmental perception, in fact, determines the attitudes of people in favour mining and metallurgy engineering bor or against the environment Buenrostro et al.

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